How I Set Up Database Migrations for my Serverless Flask App Deployed with Zappa

This blog post assumes you are familiar with


My application follows the create_app pattern outlined in the Flask Flaskr example blog tutorial. Because of this, we need to make some adjustments to the usual deployment process when using Zappa to deploy our application.

Since we cannot call the create_app() function directly from with Zappa, we will create a supplementary file that instantiates our app, we will them point to this in zappa_settings.json. Note that yt_pubsub_handler is the name of the project. You can see it on GitHub.


from yt_pubsub_handler import create_app

app = create_app()

if __name__ == "__main__":

We can now point Zappa to this app variable:

// zappa_settings.json
    "dev": {
        "app_function": "",

Zappa now knows where to look for our app!

Database Migrations

If you are not familiar with database migrations, there are generally two options: upgrade and downgrade. An upgrade is when you make a new change to your database a structure, and a downgrade is when you revert that change. We need to be able to do this with our application database that is hosted on aws - but we can only really do this in production, since we don’t want to expose database credentials and permissions to devs. We also would not want to allow anyone to run the changes locally, since they should go through the approval process on GitHub first.

The Problem

Flask-Migrate exposes a great CLI, but we cannot run CLI commands with Zappa. So we need a workaround - we need to use the Flask-Migrate API to create some helper functions that will allow us to upgrade and downgrade our database.

The Solution

Note that I have already Introduced Flask-Migrate into my create_app() function and have run flask db init to generate a migrations/ folder at the root of my project directory.

# yt_pubsub_handler/

def create_app():
    from flask_migrate import Migrate
    migrate = Migrate(app, db)
    return app



Now we need to write some helper functions in order to run the CLI commands flask db upgrade and flask db downgrade via Zappa’s python interface.

# yt_pubsub_handler/

from flask import Flask
from flask_migrate import upgrade, downgrade

def alembic_upgrade(app: Flask):
    """Upgrades the database to the latest revision"""
    with app.app_context():

def alembic_downgrade(app: Flask):
    """Downgrades the database to the previous revision"""
    with app.app_context():

Notice that these functions take in an app variable, which is a reference to the Flask app object itself, that we first instantiated in So now we need to access these via the file so that we can pass that app reference to these functions. Without the app_context() our functions will not know which database they should be interacting with. Note that current_app will not work in this scenario. So let’s extend our file:


from yt_pubsub_handler import create_app
from yt_pubsub_handler.db_utils import alembic_upgrade, alembic_downgrade

app = create_app()

def run_alembic_upgrade():

def run_alembic_downgrade():

if __name__ == "__main__":

Creating a Migration

We can now create a branch and alter our database. To demonstrate, I made a change to yt_pubsub_handler/, which Flask-Migrate automatically picks up.

The flow I use typically includes the following steps:

  1. Start a local dev session
# I keep this in a file
$ export FLASK_APP=yt_pubsub_handler
$ export FLASK_ENV=development
flask run
  1. Edit the file
  2. Open a second terminal pane, ensure export FLASK_APP=yt_pubsub_handler is also set here
  3. Run flask db migrate to automatically create a revision in the migrations/versions/ folder
    • Review this thoroughly since it is auto-generated and may contain flaws
  4. Commit changes and open a PR to merge the changes into production
  5. Once merged and deployed with zappa update production, execute the migration with:
zappa invoke production 'run.run_alembic_upgrade'

For downgrade simply replace with run_alembic_downgrade.


Here we used Flask-Migrate’s API with some additional functionization to work with the Zappa serverless deployment framework. We can now make changes to our application database with ease.

Written on July 9, 2021